123 Apple Ln.

Example, TN, 12345

May 6th, 2019


Jeff Pope


John Doe

Estimated Square Feet


Foundation Type






Inspection Fee


Number of Bathrooms


Number of Bedrooms


Number of Stories


Present at inspection

Buyers Agent

Structure Orientation



63 degrees

Type of Construction

Wood Framing

Type of Residence

Single Family Residence

Weather Conditions

Mostly Sunny

Year Built


General Information

This report is the exclusive property of JPI Home Inspection Service and the client whose name appears herewith, and its use by any unauthorized persons is strictly prohibited.

The observations and opinions expressed within this report are those of JPI Home Inspection Service and supersede any alleged verbal comments. This report overrides, supersedes and negates any previous report that may have been submitted by JPI Home Inspection for this property and should be read in its entirety. Any reports previously submitted by JPI Home Inspection for this property should be destroyed and should not be relied upon or considered accurate or complete.

We inspect all of the systems, components, and conditions described in accordance with the standards of the International Association of Certified Home Inspectors (iNACHI), and those that we do not inspect are clearly disclaimed in the contract and/or in the aforementioned standards. However, some components that are inspected and found to be functional may not necessarily appear in the report, simply because we do not wish to waste our client's time by having them read an unnecessarily lengthy report about components that do not need to be serviced.

California Business & Professions Code, Section 7195 provides the following definition for a home inspection;

A home inspection is a noninvasive, physical examination, performed for a fee in connection with a transfer, as defined in subdivision (e), of real property, of the mechanical, electrical, or plumbing systems or the structural and essential components of a residential dwelling of one to four units designed to identify material defects in those systems, structures and components. A home inspection also includes any consultation regarding the property that is represented to be a home inspection or any confusingly similar term.

This same section of the CA B&P Code defines a "material defect" as a condition that significantly affects the value, desirability, habitability, or safety of the dwelling. Style or aesthetics shall not be considered in determining whether a system, structure, or component is defective.

In short, a home inspection is intended to assist in evaluation of the overall condition of the dwelling. The report is not intended to be a "check list" of items that need repair or general maintenance, it is designed to identify material defects or deficiencies that would have an adverse impact on the value of the real-property, or that involve an unreasonable risk to people on the property. This home inspection report will likely reveal many minor defects discovered during our examination of the property, but it will not reveal every condition that exists or ever could exist, and is intended to identify only those material defects that were observed on the day of the inspection.

In accordance with the terms of the contract, the investigation and service recommendations that we make in this report should be completed during your inspection contingency period by qualified, licensed specialists, who may well identify additional defects or recommend some upgrades that could affect your evaluation of the property.

The failure to follow our recommendations constitutes a violation of our agreement and contract, which would hold us harmless for any subsequently alleged defects or deficiencies and by relying on this inspection report you have agreed to be bound by the terms, conditions and limitations as set forth in the CONTRACT, which was presented to you at the time of the inspection or in an electronic attachment included with your completed report. If you do not have a copy of the CONTRACT please contact JPI Home Inspection and a copy will be provided to you either electronically or by fax. If you do not agree to be bound by this CONTRACT in its entirety, you must contact JPI Home Inspection immediately upon receipt of this completed report. In addition, all electronic and paper copies of the inspection report must be deleted and destroyed, and may not be used in whole or in part for consideration in a real estate transaction.

Your completed report may contain photographs of various conditions noted during the inspection.


Scope of Work

You have contracted with JPI Home Inspection Service to perform a generalist inspection in accordance with the standards of practice established by the National Association of Certified Home Inspectors, a copy of which is available upon request. Generalist inspections are essentially visual, and distinct from those of specialists, inasmuch as they do not include the use of specialized instruments, the dismantling of equipment, or the sampling of air and inert materials. Consequently, a generalist inspection and the subsequent report will not be as comprehensive, nor as technically exhaustive, as that generated by specialists, and it is not intended to be. The purpose of a generalist inspection is to identify significant defects or adverse conditions that would warrant a specialist evaluation. Therefore, you should be aware of the limitations of this type of inspection, which are clearly indicated in the standards. However, the inspection is not intended to document the type of cosmetic deficiencies that would be apparent to the average person, and certainly not intended to identify insignificant deficiencies.

Most homes built after 1978, are generally assumed to be free of asbestos and many other common environmental contaminants. However, as a courtesy to our clients, we are including some well documented, and therefore public, information about several environmental contaminants that could be of concern to you and your family, all of which we do not have the expertise or the authority to evaluate, such as asbestos, radon, methane, formaldehyde, termites and other wood-destroying organisms, pests and rodents, molds, microbes, bacterial organisms, and electromagnetic radiation, to name some of the more commonplace ones. Nevertheless, we will attempt to alert you to any suspicious substances that would warrant evaluation by a specialist. However, health and safety, and environmental hygiene are deeply personal responsibilities, and you should make sure that you are familiar with any contaminant that could affect your home environment. You can learn more about contaminants that can affect you home from a booklet published by The environmental Protection Agency, which you can read online at www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/insidest.htm.

Mold is one such contaminant, and is present to some degree in nearly every residence. It is a microorganism that has tiny seeds, or spores, that are spread on the air, land, and feed on organic matter. It has been in existence throughout human history, and actually contributes to the life process. It takes many different forms, many of them benign, like mildew. Some characterized as allergens are relatively benign but can provoke allergic reactions among sensitive people, and others characterized as pathogens can have adverse health effects on large segments of the population, such as the very young, the elderly, and people with suppressed immune systems. However, there are less common molds that are called toxigens that represent a serious health threat. All molds flourish in the presence of moisture, and we make a concerted effort to look for any evidence of it wherever there could be a water source, including that from condensation. Interestingly, the molds that commonly appear on ceramic tiles in bathrooms do not usually constitute a health threat, but they should be removed. However, some visibly similar molds that form on cellulose materials, such as on drywall, plaster, and wood, are potentially toxigenic. If mold is to be found anywhere within a home, it will likely be in the area of tubs, showers, toilets, sinks, water heaters, evaporator coils, inside attics with unvented bathroom exhaust fans, and return-air compartments that draw outside air, all of which are areas that we inspect very conscientiously. Nevertheless, mold can appear as though spontaneously at any time, so you should be prepared to monitor your home, and particularly those areas that we identified. Naturally, it is equally important to maintain clean air-supply ducts and to change filters as soon as they become soiled, because contaminated ducts are a common breeding ground for dust mites, rust, and other contaminants. Regardless, although some mold-like substances may be visually identified, the specific identification of molds can only be determined by specialists and laboratory analysis, and is absolutely beyond the scope of our inspection. Nonetheless, as a prudent investment in environmental hygiene, we categorically recommend that you have your home tested for the presence of any such contaminants, and particularly if you or any member of your family suffers from allergies or asthma. Also, you can learn more about mold from an Environmental Protection Agency document entitled "A Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture and Your Home," by visiting their web site at: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/molds/moldguide.html/, from which it can be downloaded.

Asbestos is a notorious contaminant that could be present in any home built before 1978. It is a naturally occurring mineral fiber that was first used by the Greek and Romans in the first century, and it has been widely used throughout the modern world in a variety of thermal insulators, including those in the form of paper wraps, bats, blocks, and blankets. However, it can also be found in a wide variety of other products too numerous to mention, including duct insulation and acoustical materials, plasters, siding, floor tiles, heat vents, and roofing products. Although perhaps recognized as being present in some documented forms, asbestos can only be specifically identified by laboratory analysis. The most common asbestos fiber that exists in residential products is chrysotile, which belongs to the serpentine or white-asbestos group, and was used in the clutches and brake shoes of automobiles for many years. However, a single asbestos fiber is said to be able to cause cancer, and is therefore a potential health threat and a litigious issue. Significantly, asbestos fibers are only dangerous when they are released into the air and inhaled, and for this reason authorities such as the Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and the Consumer Product Safety Commission [CPSC] distinguish between asbestos that is in good condition, or non-friable, and that which is in poor condition, or friable, which means that its fibers could be easily crumbled and become airborne. However, we are not specialists and, regardless of the condition of any real or suspected asbestos-containing material [ACM], we would not endorse it and recommend having it evaluated by a specialist.

Radon is a gas that results from the natural decay of radioactive materials within the soil, and is purported to be the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States. The gas is able to enter homes through the voids around pipes in concrete floors or through the floorboards of poorly ventilated crawlspaces, and particularly when the ground is wet and the gas cannot easily escape through the soil and dispersed into the atmosphere. However, it cannot be detected by the senses, and its existence can only be determined by sophisticated instruments and laboratory analysis, which is completely beyond the scope of our service. However, you can learn more about radon and other environmental contaminants and their affects on health, by contacting the EPA or a similar state agency, and it would be prudent for you to enquire about any high radon readings that might be prevalent in the general area surrounding your home.

Lead poses an equally serious health threat. In the 1920's, it was commonly found in many plumbing systems. In fact, the word "plumbing" is derived from the Latin word "plumbum," which means lead. When in use as a component of a waste system, it does not constitute a viable health threat, but as a component of potable water pipes it would certainly be a health-hazard. Although rarely found in use, lead could be present in any home build as recently as the nineteen seventies. For instance, lead was an active ingredient in many household paints, which can be released in the process of sanding, and even be ingested by small children and animals chewing on painted surfaces. Fortunately, the lead in painted surfaces can be detected by industrial hygienists using sophisticated instruments, but testing for it is not cheap. There are other environmental contaminants, some of which we have already mentioned, and others that may be relatively benign. However, we are not environmental hygienists, and as we stated earlier we disclaim any responsibility for testing or establishing the presence of any environmental contaminant, and recommend that you schedule whatever specialist inspections that may deem prudent during your inspection contingency period.

1 · Exterior

Site & Other Observations

1.1 · Landscaping Observations

The roots of mature trees could have an adverse effect on either the water main or the sewer pipe, and it would be prudent to have the trees removed. In any event, you should consult an arborist who could predict future growth potential.
Condition to be Monitored and/or Maintained

1.2 · Landscaping Observations

Vegetation is encroaching on the structure, and should be kept a minimum of twelve inches away for the general welfare of the walls and foundation.
Condition to be Monitored and/or Maintained

Grading & Drainage

1.3 · General Comments

Water is destructive, and if it's not given a way around a residence it will likely find a way in. For this reason the ideal residence is surrounded by surfaces that slope away from it for a minimum of six feet, and it has interior floors that are several inches higher than the exterior grade. It has roof gutters that discharge into area drains that convey water to a street or other hard surface. Unfortunately, many older residences don't meet this ideal, and people often fail to realize why positive drainage is essential until a problem occurs. Water not only flows on surfaces but beneath them as well and can penetrate walls and floors by capillary action or hydrostatic pressure, for which reason, capillary breaks and French drains are typically installed on modern sites to protect residences against moisture intrusion. A capillary break consists of layers of sand and gravel and a vapor barrier underneath a slab, and a French drain consists of five inch diameter tubes with holes facing the direction of the flow. They're typically enclosed in a sleeve or sock and encased in a bed of gravel in a trench that parallels a footing below the level of a floor, where they not only receive subterranean water that takes the path of least resistance, but can also receive water from roof gutters and area drains. However, area drains are only as good as their type and size. The least efficient are usually round and two or three inches in diameter, which are not only difficult to clean by hand but are easily obstructed by debris. The most efficient are five or six inches wide or larger and are similar to catch-basins that discharge close to the middle of the drain and allow any sediment or debris that's washed in to drop to the bottom where it can be easily removed. All area drains can be displaced by soil movement or blocked by roots and sedimentary material, and we don't flush-test them because it could literally take hours of time and hundreds of gallons of water, or entail the use of equipment or high-pressure hoses, for which reason we cannot guaranty that a drainage system will function as it's intended. We cannot guarantee the condition of any subterranean drainage system, and if a property does not meet this ideal, or if any portion of the interior floor is below the exterior grade, we cannot endorse it and recommend that you consult with a grading and drainage contractor, even though there may not be any evidence of moisture intrusion.
Condition to be Monitored and/or Maintained

1.4 · Moisture & Related Issues

Moisture intrusion is a perennial problem, with which you should be aware. It involves a host of interrelated factors, and can be unpredictable, intermittent, or constant. When moisture intrusion is not self evident, it can be inferred by musty odors, peeling paint or plaster, efflorescence, or salt crystal formations, rust on metal components, and wood rot. However, condensation and humidity can produce similar conditions if the temperature in an area is not maintained above the dew point. Regardless, if the interior floors of a residence are at the same elevation or lower than the exterior grade we cannot rule out the potential for moisture intrusion and would not endorse any such areas. Nevertheless, if such conditions do exist, or if you or any member of your family suffers from allergies or asthma, you should schedule a specialist inspection.

1.5 · Interior-Exterior Elevations

At points around the residence, there are similar elevations between the exterior grade and the interior floors. Such conditions are obviously not ideal, and moisture intrusion could result. The door thresholds must be kept sealed and the base of the walls monitored, and particularly during prolonged rains.
Condition to be Monitored and/or Maintained

1.6 · Drainage Mode

Drainage is facilitated by hard surfaces, and area drains that carry water away from the residence, but no catch basins or roof gutters. Such conditions may be acceptable but are not ideal, but we did not see any evidence of moisture contaminating the living space. However, the area drains must be kept clean or moisture intrusion could result.
Condition to be Monitored and/or Maintained

1.7 · Area Drains

The property is served by area drains that appear to be in acceptable condition. Because it is impossible to see inside them, the seller should guarantee that the drains are functional, or they should be flushed through to the street during your inspection contingency period. Surface water carries minerals and silt that is deposited inside the pipes and hardens in the summer months to the consistency of wet concrete, which can impede drainage and require the pipes to be cleared by a rooter service.
Condition to be Monitored and/or Maintained

Exterior Wall Finish

1.8 · General Comments

The house walls are generally wrapped with a waterproof or water-resistant barrier prior to installation of the finished covering. This barrier is an essential component, and proper installation is critical to water proofing the exterior walls. However, this barrier is concealed and not visible during the course of a generalists inspection. We do not perform water tests or leak tests, therefore, we cannot guarantee the integrity of this barrier and specifically disclaim any responsibility for defects that may exist or that may develop over time, and indications of damage or defects in the waterproof barrier may only become evident during heavy, prolonged or wind-driven rainfall. For a guarantee against leaks or defects in the waterproof barrier of the exterior walls, you would need to hire a qualified contractor to perform a water test. In addition, any system or component that has been subsequently attached to the structure, such as patio covers, decks, awnings, satellite dishes, etcetera, will have unavoidably pierced the waterproof barrier at the attachment points and will remain a potential point of moisture intrusion.

1.9 · House Wall Finish Type

The house walls are finished with stucco.

1.10 · House Wall Finish Observations

There are typical cracks in the stucco, which you should view for yourself. All cracks result from movement, and are structural in that respect, but the vast majority of them have only a cosmetic significance.
Condition to be Monitored and/or Maintained

Exterior Components

1.11 · General Comments

It is important to maintain a property, including painting or sealing walkways, decks, and other hard surfaces, and it is particularly important to keep the house walls sealed, which provide the only barrier against deterioration. Unsealed cracks around windows, doors, and thresholds can permit moisture intrusion, which is the principle cause of the deterioration of any surface. The evidence of such intrusion may only be obvious when it is raining.

1.12 · Driveways

There are predictable cracks in the driveway that would not necessarily need to be serviced.

1.13 · Walkways

The walkways are in acceptable condition.

1.14 · Window Advisory

In accordance with industry standards, we do not test every window in the house, and particularly if the house is furnished. There are many styles of windows but only two basic types, single and dual-glazed. Dual-glazed windows are superior, because they provide a thermal barrier, as well as an acoustical barrier. However, the hermetic seals on these windows can fail at any time, and cause condensation to form between the panes. Unfortunately, this is not always apparent, which is why we disclaim any evaluation of hermetic seals. In addition, the proper installation of windows and the flashings around windows is critical to water proofing the exterior walls. Missing, damaged or improperly installed flashings, and improperly installed windows are the most common cause of moisture intrusion to walls and baseboards beneath windows. Because the flashings are concealed by the exterior wall covering, we cannot endorse them and specifically disclaim any evaluation of these flashings, and leaks may become evident only during heavy, prolonged or wind-driven rainfall. Nevertheless, in accordance with industry standards, we test a representative number of unobstructed windows, and ensure that at least one window in every bedroom is operable and facilitates an emergency exit.

1.15 · Windows

The windows appear to be in acceptable condition.

1.16 · Sliding Glass Doors

The sliding glass door is tempered and in acceptable condition.

1.17 · Screens

We do not evaluate window screens, because many people choose to remove them for aesthetic reasons. Also, they are easily damaged and can be removed after our inspection. Therefore, we choose to disclaim them.

1.18 · Exterior Doors

The exterior doors are in acceptable condition.

1.19 · Fascia & Trim

The fascia and trim need maintenance type service, and particularly where they are exposed to direct sunlight. Regular maintenance will help prevent moisture intrusion and infestation from wood-destroying insects
Recommend Upgrade

1.20 · Fences & Gates

The fences and gates are serviceable, but have damage commensurate with their age.
Condition to be Monitored and/or Maintained

1.21 · Yard Walls

There are typical stress fractures or grout joint separations in the cinder block yard walls, but they are reasonably firm and do not appear to be in any danger of falling.
Condition to be Monitored and/or Maintained

1.22 · Lights

The lights outside the doors of the residence are functional. However, we do not inspect or evaluate decorative lights, low voltage lighting, yard lights or any other lighting systems that are not directly attached to the residence structure.

1.23 · Outlets

The outlets that were tested are functional and include ground-fault protection.

1.24 · Patio Covers or Gazebos

The header beam has not been properly installed and supported by the posts. Therefore, the cover will remain seismically vulnerable and we do not endorse its installation. We recommend the patio cover be rebuilt by a qualified contractor in a manner consistent with common building standards and practices.
Needing Service

1.25 · Patio Covers or Gazebos

The hangers appear to have been attached using drywall screws, which are improper for this application and would represent a potential safety hazard. Hangers require the use of specific fasteners and many of the hangers have been concealed under the finished cover. The fasteners should be verified as proper or the connections should be serviced accordingly by a qualified contractor.
Needing Service

1.26 · Patio Covers or Gazebos

The patio cover has been attached directly to a fascia board, which has no structural value. Generally, a ledger board is bolted directly to the structure is required for adequate support. You should have the patio cover evaluated by a qualified contractor, and serviced to ensure that an adequate attachment has been established.
Needing Service

2 · Structural

Various Hard Surfaces

2.1 · Common Observations

There are common settling, or curing, cracks in the hard surfaces. This is somewhat predictable, and is typically not regarded as being structurally significant.

Structural Elements

2.2 · Identification of Floor Structure

The floor structure consists of a poured slab that could include reinforcing steel.

2.3 · Identification of Roof Structure

The roof structure consists of engineered joists that are part of a prefabricated truss system.

2.4 · Identification of Ceiling Structure

The ceiling structure consists of engineered joists that are part of a prefabricated truss system.

2.5 · Identification of Wall Structure

The walls are conventionally framed with wooden studs.

Slab Foundation

2.6 · General Comments

This residence has a slab foundation. Such foundations vary considerably from older ones that have no moisture barrier under them and no reinforcing steel within them to newer ones that have both. Our inspection of slab foundations conforms to industry standards, which is that of a generalist and not a specialist. We check the visible portion of the stem walls on the outside for any evidence of significant cracks or structural deformation, but we do not move furniture or lift carpeting and padding to look for cracks or moisture penetration, and we do not use any of the specialized devices that are used to establish relative elevations and confirm differential movement. Significantly, many slabs are built or move out of level, but the average person may not become aware of this until there is a difference of more than one inch in twenty feet, which most authorities regard as being tolerable. Many slabs are found to contain cracks when the carpet and padding are removed, including some that contour the edge and can be quite wide. They typically result from shrinkage and usually have little structural significance. However, there is no absolute standard for evaluating cracks, and those that are less than 1/4" and which exhibit no significant vertical or horizontal displacement are generally not regarded as being significant. Although they typically do result from common shrinkage, they can also be caused by a deficient mixture of concrete, deterioration through time, seismic activity, adverse soil conditions, and poor drainage, and if they are not sealed they can allow moisture to enter a residence, and particularly if the residence is surcharged by a hill or even a slope, or if downspouts discharge adjacent to the slab. However, in the absence of any major defects, we may not recommend that you consult with a foundation contractor, a structural engineer, or a geologist, but this should not deter you from seeking the opinion of any such expert, and we would be happy to refer one.

2.7 · Method of Evaluation

We evaluated the slab foundation on the exterior, by examining the stem walls that project above the footing at the base of the house walls. The interior portions of the slab, which is also known as the slab floor, have little structural significance and because they are covered and not visually accessible, it is beyond the scope of our inspection.

2.8 · Common Observations

The residence has a bolted, slab foundation with no visible or significant abnormalities.

3 · Roof

Concrete Tile Roof

3.1 · General Comments

Concrete tile roofs are among the most expensive and durable of all roofs, and are warranted by the manufacturer to last for forty years or more, but are usually only guaranteed against leaks by the installer from three to five years. Like other pitched roofs, they are not designed to be waterproof, only water resistant, and are dependent on the integrity of the waterproof membrane beneath them, which cannot be seen without removing the tiles, but which can be split by movement, deteriorated through time, or by ultra-violet contamination. In addition, although there is some leeway in installation specifications, the type and quality of membranes that are installed can vary from one installer to another, and leaks do occur. The majority of leaks result when a roof has not been well maintained or kept clean, and we recommend servicing them annually.

3.2 · Method of Evaluation

We evaluated the roof and its components by walking on its surface.

3.3 · Tile/Roof-Covering Condition

There are displaced tiles that have exposed the waterproof membrane, which should be serviced by a qualified roofing contractor.
Needing Service

3.4 · With Flat Roof Sections

The flat roof section is in acceptable condition.

3.5 · Flashing

The roof jacks need to be sealed and should be serviced by a qualified roofing contractor.
Needing Service

3.6 · Gutters

There are no gutters on the residence, which are recommend for the general welfare of the foundation.
Recommend Upgrade

4 · Electrical Service Equipment

Electrical Equipment & Service Panel

4.1 · General Comments

National safety standards require electrical panels to be readily accessible, and have a minimum of thirty-six inches of clear space in front of them for service. Also, they should have a main disconnect, and each circuit within the panel should be clearly labeled. Industry standards only require us to test a representative number of accessible switches, receptacles, and light fixtures. However, we attempt to test every one that is unobstructed, but if a residence is furnished we will obviously not be able to test each one.

4.2 · Service Entrance

The main conductor lines are underground, or part of a lateral service entrance. This is characteristic of modern electrical services but, inasmuch as the service lines are underground and cannot be seen, they are not evaluated as part of our service.

4.3 · Service Panel Size & Location

The residence is served by a 100 amp, 240 volt panel, located in the garage side yard.

4.4 · Service Panel Observations

The panel is locked, which prevented us from evaluating its components, and could prevent or delay an emergency disconnect. The panel should be unlocked and evaluated by a qualified electrician.
Needing Service

4.5 · Panel Cover Observations

The exterior panel cover is in acceptable condition.

4.6 · Panel Cover Observations

The interior panel cover is in acceptable condition.

4.7 · Wiring Observations

The visible portions of the wiring have no visible deficiencies.

4.8 · Wiring Observations

The residence is wired predominantly with a vinyl conduit known as non-metallic cable (NMC) or Romex.

4.9 · Wiring Observations

The conductors are predominantly copper throughout the residence

4.10 · Circuit Breakers

The handle tie, which is required and designed to ensure that both legs of power are shut down simultaneously for the circuit, is missing from the breakers of the 240 volt main-breaker circuit. This should be corrected by a qualified electrician for safety.
Needing Service

4.11 · Service Equipment Grounding & Bonding

The system is grounded to foundation steel, known also as a UFER ground, or concrete encased electrode.

5 · Chimney


5.1 · General Comments

There are a wide variety of chimneys, which represent an even wider variety of the interrelated components that comprise them. However, there are three basic types, single-walled metal, masonry, and pre-fabricated metal ones that are commonly referred to as factory-built ones. Single-walled metal ones should not be confused with factory-built metal ones, and are rarely found in residential use, but masonry and factory-built ones are a commonplace. Our inspection of them conforms to industry standards, and is that of a generalist and not a specialist. However, significant areas of chimney flues cannot be adequately viewed during a field inspection, as has been documented by the Chimney Safety Institute of America, which reported in 1992: "The inner reaches of a flue are relatively inaccessible, and it should not be expected that the distant oblique view from the top or bottom is adequate to fully document damage even with a strong light." Therefore, because our inspection of chimneys is limited to those areas that can be viewed without dismantling any portion of them, and does not include the use of specialized equipment, we will not guarantee their integrity or drafting ability and recommend that they be video-scanned during the inspection contingency period.

5.2 · Common Observations

The fireplace system has been abandoned and partially removed, however, the opening from the flue into the attic will allow the potential for moisture and/or pest intrusion. This potential entry point should be serviced and sealed by a qualified contractor.
Needing Service

5.3 · Crown or Chase Cover

The fireplace system has been abandoned, however, metal termination cap is sunken and will hold water, and should be serviced to ensure that moisture does not contaminate the area surrounding the flue.
Needing Service

5.4 · Chimney Flashings

The chimney flashings are in acceptable condition.

6 · Plumbing

Potable Water Supply Pipes

6.1 · Public Water Supply

The potable water is supplied to the residence by a public utility company.

6.2 · Water Meter Location

The water meter is located near the sidewalk.

6.3 · Water Main Shut-off Location

The main water shut-off valve is located in the entry walkway.

6.4 · Pressure Regulators

A functional pressure regulator is in place on the plumbing system. A water pressure regulator is a valve that automatically cuts off, or reduces the flow of water at a certain pressure. Regulators are used to allow high-pressure water supply lines or tanks to be reduced to safe and/or usable pressures for residential applications.

6.5 · Pressure Relief Valves

A pressure relief valve is a safety device that relieves overpressure in the water piping. There is a pressure relief valve on the plumbing system, as required.

6.6 · Recirculating Systems

Hot water recirculation systems deliver hot water to fixtures quickly without waiting for the water to get hot. Rather than relying on water pressure in water lines, recirculating systems use a pump to rapidly move water from a water heater to the fixtures. The plumbing system on this residence does not include a recirculating pump, which means that there will be a delay in hot water service relative to the distance of the fixture from the water heater.

6.7 · Copper Water Pipes

The potable water pipes are in acceptable condition.

General Gas Components

6.8 · Gas Main Shut-Off Location

The gas main shut-off is located in the garage side yard. You should be aware that gas leaks are not uncommon, particularly underground ones, and that they can be difficult to detect without the use of sophisticated instruments, which is beyond the scope of a typical home inspection. Therefore, we recommend that you request a recent gas bill from the sellers, so that you can establish a norm and thereby be alerted to any potential leak.

6.9 · Gas Main Observations

There is no wrench at the gas shut-off valve to facilitate an emergency shut-off, and we recommend that you buy one and leave it in-place near the valve.
Recommended Safety Upgrade

6.10 · Gas Seismic Shut-Off Valve

The gas main is not equipped with a seismic shut-off valve. A natural gas seismic shut-off valve automatically shuts off your gas service when an earthquake of a sufficient magnitude occurs at your home's location. Although they are not mandated by this jurisdiction, many insurance companies will require that a seismic shut-off valve be installed at the gas main. Therefore, you should check with your insurance provider.
Further Investigation Advised

6.11 · Gas Supply Pipes

The visible portions of the gas pipes appear to be in acceptable condition.

Waste & Drainage Systems

6.12 · General Comments

We attempt to evaluate drain pipes by flushing every drain that has an active fixture while observing its draw and watching for blockages or slow drains, but this is not a conclusive test and only a video-scan of the main line would confirm its actual condition. However, you can be sure that blockages will occur, usually relative in severity to the age of the system, and will range from minor ones in the branch lines, or at the traps beneath sinks, tubs, and showers, to major blockages in the main line. The minor ones are easily cleared, either by chemical means or by removing and cleaning the traps. However, if tree roots grow into the main drain that connects the house to the public sewer, repairs could become expensive and might include replacing the entire main line. For these reasons, we recommend that you ask the sellers if they have ever experienced any drainage problems, or you should consider having the main waste line video-scanned during your inspection contingency period. Failing this, you should obtain an insurance policy that covers blockages and damage to the main line. However, most policies only cover plumbing repairs within the house, or the cost of rooter service, most of which are relatively inexpensive.

6.13 · Type of Material

The visible portions of the drainpipes are acrylonitrile butadiene styrene type, or ABS.

6.14 · Drain Waste & Vent Pipes

Based on industry recommended water tests, the drainpipes are functional at this time. However, only a video-scan of the main drainpipe would confirm its actual condition.

6.15 · Clean Outs

Clean-outs are a necessary component of any residential waste and drainage system. They are designed to allow easy access for repairs, modifications and maintenance of the main drain-line and branch drain-lines, and are required components in modern plumbing systems. Clean-outs are often inadvertently concealed behind exterior wall covering, ground cover or even slabs, such as patios and sidewalks. During our inspection we do not locate nor report on clean-outs except to note obvious deficiencies such as unsealed openings or obvious leakage. As generalists, we do not comment on the quantity, adequacy or lack of clean-outs on an existing system, and it may become necessary at some point in the future to add a clean-out or even multiple clean-outs to the system.

Gas Water Heaters

6.16 · General Comments

There are a wide variety of residential water heaters that range in capacity from fifteen to one hundred gallons. They can be expected to last at least as long as their warranty, or from five to eight years, but they will generally last longer. However, few of them last longer than fifteen or twenty years and many eventually leak. So it is always wise to have them installed over a drain pan plumbed to the exterior. Also, it is prudent to flush them annually to remove minerals that include the calcium chloride bi-product of many water softening systems. The water temperature should be set at a minimum of 110 degrees Fahrenheit to kill microbes and a maximum of 140 degrees to prevent scalding. Also, water heaters can be dangerous if they are not seismically secured and equipped with either a pressure/temperature relief valve and discharge pipe plumbed to the exterior, or a Watts 210 gas shut-off valve.

6.17 · Age Capacity & Location

Hot water is provided by an 18 year old, 40 gallon heater that is located in the garage.

6.18 · Water Shut-Off Valve & Connectors

The shut-off valve and water connectors are functional.

6.19 · Gas Shut-Off Valve & Connector

The gas control valve and its connector at the water heater are functional.

6.20 · Vent Pipe & Cap

The vent pipe is functional.

6.21 · Over-Temperature and Over-Pressure Safety System

All storage-type (tank-type) water heaters are required to include an over-temperature and over-pressure safety system. Generally, this system will include a standard temperature & pressure relief (TPR) valve and discharge pipe. The purpose of the valve is to relieve excessive temperature or pressure build up inside the tank if it approaches the limits of the tank's safe design range. The discharge pipe is designed to route the discharge of water and steam to a safe location. The valve should be located near the top of the tank, and is usually threaded directly into the tank top itself. To test the valve, lift up on the handle slightly and hot water should discharge out of the overflow pipe.

6.22 · Relief Valve & Discharge Pipe

The water heater is equipped with a mandated pressure-temperature relief valve.

6.23 · Drain Valve

The drain valve is in place and presumed to be functional.

6.24 · Drip Pan & Overflow Pipe

The water heater is not equipped with a drip pan and overflow pipe, which is recommended, and which is designed to prevent or minimize water damage from a leak.
Recommend Upgrade

6.25 · Combustion Air Vents

The water heater does have appropriate combustion-air vents.

6.26 · CA State Requirements for Seismic Strapping

California Health & Safety Code, Section 19211 requires that all new and replacement water heaters, and all existing residential water heaters, shall be braced, anchored, or strapped to resist falling or horizontal displacement due to earthquake motion. At a minimum, any water heater shall be secured in accordance with the California Plumbing Code, or modifications made thereto by a city, county, or city and county pursuant to Section 17958.5. The California Plumbing Code Section 508.2 reads as follows; Protection from Seismic Damage. Water heaters shall be anchored or strapped to resist horizontal displacement due to earthquake motion. Strapping shall be at points within the upper one third (1/3) and lower one-third (1/3) of its vertical dimensions. At the lower point, a minimum distance of four (4) inches (102 mm) shall be maintained above the controls with the strapping.

6.27 · Seismic Straps

The water heater is seismically secured in accordance with state and local standards.

Irrigation or Sprinklers

6.28 · General Comments

There are a wide variety of irrigation components, such as pipes that could include old galvanized ones, more dependable copper ones, and modern polyvinyl ones that are commonly referred to as PVC. However, among the latter, the quality can range from a dependable thick-walled type to a less dependable thin-walled type, and it is not uncommon to find a mixture of them. To complicate matters, significant portions of these pipes cannot be examined because they are buried. Therefore, we identify a system based on what type of pipe that can be seen. However, our inspection only includes the visible portions of the system, and we do not test each component, nor search below vegetation for any concealed hose bibs, actuators, risers, or heads. We do not test the automatic or manual sprinkler systems and recommend that you have the sellers demonstrate any sprinkler system during your inspection contingency period and indicate any seasonal changes that they may make to the program.

6.29 · Sprinklers or Irrigation Systems

We do not evaluate sprinkler systems, which should be demonstrated by the sellers.
Further Investigation Advised

6.30 · Hose Bibs

The hose bibs are functional, but we may not have located and tested every one on the property.

7 · Heat/AC

HVAC Split Systems

7.1 · Age & Location

Central heat and air-conditioning are provided by a single split-system, consisting of an 18 year-old furnace with an evaporator coil that is located in the attic, and an 18 year-old condensing coil that is located in the back yard.

7.2 · Common Observations

The split-system needs to be serviced by a qualified HVAC contractor. This service should be scheduled within the inspection period, because a specialist could reveal additional defects or recommend upgrades that may affect your evaluation of the system.
Further Investigation Advised

7.3 · Furnace

The furnace is functional.

7.4 · Vent Pipe

The vent pipe has no visible deficiencies.

7.5 · Gas Valve & Connector

The gas valve and connector are in acceptable condition.

7.6 · Combustion-Air Vents

The combustion-air vents appear to be adequate to support complete combustion.

7.7 · Return-Air Compartment

The cover for the return-air compartment does not seal effectively, which may allow for byproducts of combustion to be mixed with the distribution air of the system. You may wish to seek a second opinion, but we recommend that the covers be adequately sealed to prevent the possibility of this occurrence.
Needing Service

7.8 · Return-Air Compartment

The return-air compartment is in acceptable condition.

7.9 · Circulating Fan

The circulating fan is clean and functional.

7.10 · Evaporator Coil

The evaporator coil is functional.

7.11 · Condensate Drainpipe

The primary condensate pipe is blocked, as is evident from moisture discharging from the secondary condensate pipe. The primary condensate line should be tested and, if need be, the coil should be serviced.
Needing Service

7.12 · Drip Pan

The drip pan is not sloped to drain effectively and may hold water, and should be serviced.
Needing Service

7.13 · Condensing Coil

The condensing coil responded to the thermostat and is functional.

7.14 · Condensing Coil Disconnect

The electrical disconnect at the condensing coil is functional.

7.15 · Refrigerant Lines

The refrigerant lines are in acceptable condition.

7.16 · Differential Temperature Readings

The air-conditioning responded and achieved an acceptable differential temperature split between the air entering the system and that coming out, of eighteen degrees or more.

7.17 · Thermostats

The thermostat is functional.

7.18 · Registers

The registers are reasonably clean and functional.

8 · Interior

Smoke Detectors

8.1 · CA Smoke Detector Requirements

A smoke detector is a device that detects smoke, typically as an indicator of fire. Smoke detectors are required to be installed in a manner consistent with the Building Codes in effect at the time of original construction. Additional detectors may be required if additions or alterations to structure have occurred, but at minimum, all residential homes in CA are required to have at least one working smoke detector. The California Health & Safety Code, Section 13113.8, specifically states that on and after January 1, 1986, every single-family dwelling and factory-built housing, as defined in Section 19971, which is sold shall have an operable smoke detector. The detector shall be approved and listed by the State Fire Marshal and installed in accordance with the State Fire Marshal's regulations. Unless prohibited by local rules, regulations, or ordinances, a battery-operated smoke detector shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of this section. In addition, we categorically recommend that all sleeping rooms be equipped with functional smoke detectors regardless of the minimum standards set by state or local laws. Smoke detectors should be installed at least three feet away from air-conditioning and heating registers and be positioned no more than twelve inches below the highest point of the ceiling in the room it serves. They should be checked periodically and batteries should be changed regularly. Also, the generally accepted life expectancy of smoke detectors is ten years and any detector more than ten years old should not be relied upon and should be replaced immediately. If you are unable to determine the age of the smoke detector, it should be replaced. During our inspection, we do not check nor do we comment on the age of the installed smoke detectors. We do not operate smoke detectors nor do we smoke-test detectors, which is the only definitive test to confirm proper function.

8.2 · Smoke Detector Observations

Except as otherwise noted within the report, the residence is equipped with smoke detectors in locations consistent with state and local requirements.

Carbon Monoxide Detectors

8.3 · CA Carbon Monoxide Detector Requirements

A carbon monoxide detector or CO detector is a device that detects the presence of carbon monoxide (CO) gas in order to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. CO is a colorless and odorless compound produced by incomplete combustion. The California Health & Safety Code, Section 17926 requires, with very few exceptions, that all existing homes in California must be equipped with carbon monoxide alarms. CA Law requires that an approved carbon monoxide alarm be installed in dwelling units and in sleeping units within which fuel-burning appliances are installed, and in dwelling units that have attached garages. Carbon monoxide alarms and carbon monoxide detectors should be installed on or near the ceiling in the immediate vicinity of fuel burning appliances and other sources of carbon monoxide such as attached garages. The generally accepted life expectancy of carbon monoxide alarms is ten years and any alarm more than ten years old should not be relied upon and should be replaced immediately. If you are unable to determine the age of the CO alarm, it should be replaced. During our inspection, we do not operate or test the function of CO detectors.

8.4 · Carbon Monoxide Detector Observations

The residence is equipped with carbon monoxide alarms as required by state law.

Interior Observations

8.5 · Interior Observations

The residence is furnished, and in accordance with industry standards we only inspect those surfaces that are exposed and readily accessible. We do not move furniture, lift carpets or rugs, nor do we remove or rearrange items within closets or cabinets. It is quite common for damage to occur during the vacating process. Typical components that become damaged include floor covering, drywall at walls and ceilings, windows, drain lines and water supply lines within cabinets, water connectors behind refrigerators, gas and water connectors behind laundry appliances, cabinet doors and drawers, lighting fixtures and any other component(s) in areas where occupants items have been stored or staged. On your final walk through, or at some point after furniture and personal belongings have been removed, it is important that you inspect the interior portions of the residence that were concealed or otherwise inaccessible and contact us immediately if any adverse conditions are observed that were not reported on in your inspection report.
Further Investigation Advised

9 · Living Areas

Main Entry

9.1 · No Recommended Service

We have evaluated this portion of the living area and found it to be in acceptable condition.

Living Room

9.2 · No Recommended Service

We have evaluated this portion of the living area and found it to be in acceptable condition.

Dining Room

9.3 · No Recommended Service

We have evaluated this portion of the living area and found it to be in acceptable condition.

10 · Hallway


10.1 · No Recommended Service

We have evaluated the hallway, and found it to be in acceptable condition.

11 · Kitchen


11.1 · Flooring

The floor has no significant defects.

11.2 · Walls & Ceiling

The walls and ceiling are in acceptable condition.

11.3 · Dual-Glazed Windows

The window is functional.

11.4 · Sink & Countertop

The sink and countertop are functional.

11.5 · Faucet

The sink faucet is functional.

11.6 · Trap and Drain

The trap and drain are functional.

11.7 · Valves & Connectors

The valves and connectors below the sink are functional. However, they are not in daily use and will inevitably become stiff or frozen.

11.8 · Garbage Disposal

The garbage disposal is functional.

11.9 · Cabinets

The cabinets are functional, and do not have any significant damage.

11.10 · Gas Range

The gas range is functional, but was neither calibrated nor tested for its performance.

11.11 · Gas Cooktop

The gas cook top is functional.

11.12 · Dishwasher

The dishwasher is functional but discharges water through the air-gap fitting, which indicates a partial obstruction in the discharge hose. Removing and cleaning the hose where it attaches to the garbage disposal should correct this problem.
Needing Service

11.13 · Exhaust Fan or Downdraft

The exhaust fan or downdraft is functional.

11.14 · Lights

The lights are functional.

11.15 · Outlets

The outlets that were tested are functional and include ground-fault protection.

12 · Bedrooms

Master Bedroom

12.1 · Service Recommended

We have evaluated this bedroom found it to be in acceptable condition with exception to the deficiencies and/or defects listed below.

12.2 · Outlets

There is a missing cover plate that should be replaced for safety.
Needing Service

First Guest Bedroom

12.3 · No Recommended Service

We have evaluated the bedroom and found it to be in acceptable condition.

Second Guest Bedroom

12.4 · No Recommended Service

We have evaluated the bedroom and found it to be in acceptable condition.

13 · Bathrooms

Master Bathroom

13.1 · No Recommended Service

We have evaluated this bathroom and found it to be in acceptable condition.

Hallway Bathroom

13.2 · No Recommended Service

We have evaluated this bathroom and found it to be in acceptable condition.

14 · Attic


14.1 · Primary Attic Access Location

The attic can be accessed through a hatch in the hallway ceiling.

14.2 · Method of Evaluation

We evaluated the attic by direct access.

14.3 · Common Observations

There is evidence of rodents in the attic, which can present a significant health hazard, and should be evaluated and serviced by a qualified exterminator or pest control company as soon as possible. Rodents can compromise not only the attic and its various components, such as ducts and insulation, but can eventually compromise the living space as well.
Needing Service

14.4 · Framing

The roof framing consists of a factory-built truss system, comprised of components called chords, webs, and struts that are connected by wood or metal gussets nailed or glued in place. Each component of the truss is designed for a specific purpose, and cannot be removed or modified without compromising the integrity of the entire truss. The lowest component, which is called the chord and to which the ceiling is attached, can move by thermal expansion and contraction and cause creaking sounds, which are more pronounced in the mornings and evenings along with temperature changes. Such movement has no structural significance, but can result in small cracks or divots in the drywall or plaster.

14.5 · Ventilation

Ventilation is provided by a combination of eave, dormer, turbine, or gable vents, and should be adequate. We do not evaluate, nor do we operate or check the function of solar or electric powered ventilator fans.

14.6 · Electrical

The electrical components that are fully visible appear to be in acceptable condition.

14.7 · Heat Vents

The heat vents appear to be functional.

14.8 · Plumbing Vents

The drainpipe vents that are fully visible are in acceptable condition.

14.9 · Exhaust Ducts

The visible portions of the exhaust ducts are functional.

14.10 · Batt Insulation

The attic floor is well insulated with approximately nine-inches of fiberglass, batt insulation. When installed according to the manufacturers recommendations, this gives the attic an approximate insulation resistance rating, or R-Value, of R-30.

15 · Laundry

Laundry Room

15.1 · Doors

The door is functional.

15.2 · Flooring

The floor has no significant defects.

15.3 · Walls & Ceiling

The walls and ceiling are in acceptable condition.

15.4 · Cabinets

The cabinets are functional.

15.5 · Valves & Connectors

The valves and connectors are functional. However, because they are not in daily use they typically become stiff or frozen.

15.6 · Trap & Drain

The trap and drain appear to be functional.

15.7 · Gas Valve & Connector

The gas valve and connector are functional.

15.8 · Dryer Vent

Faulty dryer vents have been responsible for thousands of fires, hundreds of injuries, and even deaths. The best vents are a smooth-walled metal type that travels a short distance; all other types should be regarded as suspect, and should be inspected bi-annually to ensure that they do not contain trapped lint or moisture.
Condition to be Monitored and/or Maintained

15.9 · Lights

The lights are functional.

15.10 · Outlets

The outlets that were tested are functional.

16 · Garage

Double-Car Garage

16.1 · Slab Floor

The slab floor is in acceptable condition. Small cracks are common and result as a consequence of the curing process, seismic activity, common settling, or the presence expansive soils, but are not structurally threatening. Also, you may notice some salt crystal formations that are activated by moisture penetrating the slab.

16.2 · Walls & Ceiling

The walls are not fully visible due to occupants belongings. We do not move or rearrange personal items, lift carpets or rugs, nor do we remove or rearrange items within closets or cabinets. On your final walk through, or at some point after personal belongings have been removed, it is important that you inspect the interior portions of the garage that were concealed or otherwise inaccessible and contact us immediately if any adverse conditions are observed that were not reported on in your inspection report.
Further Investigation Advised

16.3 · Walls & Ceiling

The walls and ceiling in the are sheathed and in acceptable condition.

16.4 · Ventilation Ports

The ventilation ports are functional.

16.5 · Firewall Separation

The voids in the ceiling firewall must be properly repaired, in order to maintain the necessary firewall separation between the garage and the residence.
Needing Service

16.6 · Entry Door Into the House

The self-closing door does not latch on its own when it closes, which is a necessary function of a door installed in a fire-separation. The latching hardware should be adjusted or otherwise serviced to maintain the integrity of the garage firewall system.
Needing Service

16.7 · Exterior Pedestrian Door

The side door is functional.

16.8 · Garage Vehicle Door & Hardware

The garage door and its hardware are functional.

16.9 · Automatic Opener

The garage door opener is functional.

16.10 · Automatic Opener

The optical sensors for the garage door opener have been bypassed, which is unsafe, and should be corrected. The Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) and manufacturers recommendations require optical sensors to be mounted within 6 inches of the garage floor for safety.
Needing Service

16.11 · Lights

The lights are functional and do not need service at this time.

16.12 · Outlets

In general, all receptacle outlets located in garages are required to have ground-fault circuit interrupter protection. There are outlets in the garage that does not include this required protection, which should be corrected by a qualified electrician.
Needing Service

16.13 · Electrical Observations

Electrical connections have been made outside of a junction box, which is a potential fire-hazard. All such connections should be made inside a junction box, in order to contain any arching or sparking within the box.
Needing Service

16.14 · Electrical Observations

There is a missing electrical cover plate that should be replaced.
Needing Service

17 · Resources

Energy Saving Resources

17.1 · Utility Bill Rebates & Other Assistance

The state of California (CA Resources Code 25401.7) requires the inspection report to include contact information for energy savings. This required information is provided below. UTILITY BILL, REBATES AND OTHER ASSISTANCE Online Consumer and Business Conservation Rebate Database: http://www.consumerenergycenter.org. California Department of Consumer Affairs: http://www.dca.ca.gov/energy-challenge.htm. California Energy Commission, for information on utility bill assistance programs: 800-772-3300 or http://www.consumerenergycenter.org. California Public Utilities Commission Consumer Affairs Branch, for information on baseline and other optional rates and bill assistance programs: 800-649-7570 or http://www.cpuc.ca.gov. California Energy Alternative Rates (CARE): Call your local utility company for information and applications.
State Mandated Report Inclusion